Special issue hydraulic fracturing in hard rock 473 1 3 by the degree of material anisotropy rather than the stress anisotropy. Environmental effects of hydraulic fracturing june 2015. Optimize hydraulic fracturing stimulation through accurate geomechanical characterizations. Pdf laboratory hydraulic fracturing tests of rock samples with. An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation. A hydraulic fracture is formed by pumping the fracturing fluid into the wellbore at a rate sufficient to increase pressure downhole to exceed the strength of the rock. Hazim abass, christopher lamei, in hydraulic fracture modeling, 2018. However, this technique is more and more applied for the exploration of other underground excavations and construction. Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are safely unlocking vast u. Fracturing overview hydraulic fracturing involves the injection of fluids into the formation at a. Applications of rock fracture mechanics springerlink. Although it can happen naturally, it is now used as a method to force oil and natural gas from shale history and method. The first fracturing experiment was in 1947 and the process was accepted as commercial by 1950.
The method utilizing the hydraulic fracturing numerical model and a computational intelligent method is proposed and verified. Hydraulic fracturing is an essential tool used to enhance connectivity in shale gas reservoirs by maximizing the intersection between the hydraulic fracture hf and preexisting natural fractures nf or faults. Slickwater fracturing is the most routine form of well stimulation in shales. According to our knowledge, hydraulic fracturing in hard, crystalline rock is not well understood as hydraulic fracturing in sedimentary rock for oil and gas. He also served as an spe distinguished lecturer and wrote two chapters in the spe monograph, recent advances in hydraulic fracturing.
Depending on the cause of fracturing, the fractures formed will. Fractures and fracturing hydraulic fracturing in jointed. Much of what is used in hydraulic fracturing theory and design was developed by other engineering disciplines many years ago. The hydraulic fracturing process hydraulic fracturing is not a drilling technique. Using all the reservoir data, nsi fracturing engineers use the fracturing software stimplantm developed by nsi technologies to develop an optmum fracture design. The first horizontal well was in the 1930s and horizontal wells were common by the late 1970s. Hydraulic fracturing also called fracking, fracing, hydrofracking, fraccing, fracing, and hydrofracturing is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. This chapter discusses building a rock stress log, what assumptions are. Developing energy from shale is an advanced process that uses the latest drilling technologies and equipment. Rock strength decreases with decreasing strain rate apply. Yet, hydraulic fracturing that can consider dynamic interrelations between. Given that the mechanics of hydraulic fracturing and s. Given the widening application of hydraulic fracturing to situations where there is little prior experience e.
This process is intended to create new fractures in the rock as well as increase the size, extent, and connectivity of. Chapter 10 hydraulic fracturing treatment design 291 10. Back analysis of rock hydraulic fracturing by coupling. Hydraulic fracturing an overview sciencedirect topics.
Hydraulic conductivity, k cms, ms measure of the ability of a. To support the development of geothermal energy, in particular, a thorough understanding of hydraulic fracturing in granitic target rock for generating heat exchangers at depth is needed. Nsi fracturing hydraulic fracturing, reservoir engineering. Smith has written more than 35 technical papers and holds six patents. Theoretical models in combination with scaling arguments and numerical simulations indicate that flow in a radial fracture. Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is forcing fractures in a rock layer, by fluid that is put under pressure. Haimson and others published isrm suggested methods for rock stress estimation part 3. The term hydraulic fracturing is nowadays widely used. The process takes on the average, three to five days to complete. The process involves the highpressure injection of fracking fluid primarily water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of. Theories, operations, and economic analysis introduces the basic characteristics and theories surrounding hydraulic fracturing and the main process of fracturing in shale, including the main workflow, the details in case analysis, and the fundamental differences between theory, study, and practical operation. Application of rock mechanics in hydraulic fracturing. The text presents a concise treatment of the physics and mathematics of a representative selection of problems from areas such as earthquake mechanics and prediction, hydraulic fracturing, hot dry rock.
The hydraulic fracturing numerical model provides the samples. Laboratory hydraulic fracturing tests of rock samples with. This process is intended to create new fractures in the rock as well as increase the size, extent, and connectivity of existing fractures. Warpinski served as a technology fellow at halliburton in houston, texas, where he oversaw the development of new tools and analyses for hydraulic fracture mapping, reservoir monitoring, hydraulic fracture design and analysis, and integrated monitoring solutions for reservoir. Rock mechanics with emphasis on stress may also induce fracture growth. An example of this is during drilling operations if the drilling mud. During this presentation, the focus will be on a discussion of the critical geomechanical concepts and accepted knowledge about hydraulic. Offers understanding of the details surrounding fracturing and fracture modeling technology, including theories and quantitative methods provides academic and practical perspective from multiple contributors at the forefront of hydraulic fracturing and rock mechanics provides todays petroleum engineer with model validation tools backed by. Once the formation breaks down, a fracture is formed, and the injected fluid begins moving down the fracture.
The technique is most effective when the hydraulic fracture crosses natural fractures rather than arresting on them. Hydraulic fracturing tests systel instrumentation services. Fundamentals and advancements by downloading the pdf below. Hydraulic fracturing, informally referred to as fracking, is an oil and gas well development process that typically involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well. The problem of the hydraulic fracturing in the earth. Spe member price 185 usd with an author team of 26 subjectmatter experts representing a diversity of talent, background, and experience, hydraulic fracturing. Transactions of american institute of mining engineering 210. However, rock formatons cannot often be treated as isotropic and homogeneous. With twothirds of the worlds oil and natural gas reserves committed to.
Hydraulic fracturing fracture spacing co2 analogue caprock fluid injection. Pdf acid fracturing or proppant fracturing in carbonate. This advanced course is designed for those who have a practical understanding of the applications of hydraulic fracturing and want to expand their knowledge. Rock engineering problems fall into the data limited category. Once the formation breaks down, a fracture is formed, and the injected fluid begins moving down the. As for what fracking means to the united states the answers are security, economic growth and jobs, jobs, jobs. Fundamentals and advancements delivers a comprehensive discussion on the principles of hydraulic fracturing while also including the latest processes that have prompted the explosive growth in stimulating horizontal wells in shale and. Spe 166332ms characterizing hydraulic fracturing with a. Introduction to fracturing hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells are not new tools for the oil and gas industry. Critical geomechanics concepts for hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs download.
Chapter 3 rock mechanics and fracture geometry norm warpinski norm r. Pdf isrm suggested methods for rock stress estimation part 3. As used classically in petroleum engineering, hydraulic fracturing. Response of rocks to applied loads earth materials rocks soils fluids. Hydraulic fracturing tests hydraulic fracturing is a technique for measuring in situ stresses in boreholes. Application of rock mechanics in hydraulic fracturing theories abstract resume three aspects of rock mechanics have been of. Slickwater hydraulic fracturing of shales journal of. Hydraulic fracturing and rock characterization hydraulic fracturing and rock characterization haimson, b.
International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences. This chapter presents the experimental modeling, which was the first. Numerical methods for hydraulic fracture propagation infoscience. A theoretical examination of the fracturing of rocks by means of pressure applied in boreholes leads to the conclusion that, regardless of whether the fracturing fluid.
Fractures and fracturing hydraulic fracturing in jointed rock. This lets gas and petroleum from source rocks get to reservoir rocks. Hydraulic fracturing the technique of hydraulic fracturing makes use of a liquid to fracture the reservoir rocks. Slickwater hydraulic fracturing of shales journal of fluid.
Hydraulic fracturing has been used in the oil and natural gas industry since the 1940s, producing more than 700 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 15 billion barrels of oil since the practice began. Acid fracturing or proppant fracturing in carbonate formation. Since the beginning of hydraulic fracturing, many modeling efforts have been made to understand the operation on all disciplines related to the process such as reservoir engineering, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics, material science, and chemistry. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of pumping a fluid into a wellbore at an injection rate that is too great for the formation to accept in a radial flow pattern. Although the preceding discussion is focussed on the intentional hydraulic fracturing of rock, it should be noted that fracturing can also occur unintentionally.
The increased attention paid to experimental rock fracture mechanics has led to major contributions to the solving of geophysical problems. Nsi fracturing resources hydraulic fracturing, reservoir. Introduction numerical modeling of hydraulic fracturing has been performed. After the fracture forms and propped open, this minimum stress acts to crush the proppant, thus determining the type of proppant required. Steve metcalf this advanced course is designed for those who have a practical understanding of the applications of hydraulic fracturing and want to. Chapter 3 rock mechanics and fracture geometry chapter 4 hydraulic fracture modeling. It is a technology used to enhance the flow of gasoil from a well, once the drilling is completed and the drilling rig is removed from the site. The mechanics and application of hydraulic fractures in rocks. Overview geomechanics and hydraulic fracturing stimulation. Rock fracture mechanics is about understanding what will happen to the rocks in the subsurface when subjected to fracture stress. The latter process generally is called hydraulic fracturing. Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing college of earth and mineral. Purchase mechanics of hydraulic fracturing 2nd edition. For many years, a main application was determination of the minimum horizontal stress for hydro power pressure tunnels.
Fracking simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Defining horizontal well objectives in tight and unconventional gas reservoirs, paper csugspe 7839 presented at the canadian unconventional resources and international petroleum conference held in calgary, alberta canada, october 1921, 2010. Pdf isrm suggested methods for rock stress estimation. We explore the use of these gases as stimulants on green river shale to compare the form and behavior of fractures in shale driven by different gas compositions and states and indexed by breakdown. Critical geomechanics concepts for hydraulic fracturing and. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Hydraulic fracturing pekerjaan fracturing eksperimental pertama dilakukan pada tahun 1947 oleh stanolind oil di lapangan gas hugoton di baratdaya kansas menggunakan galon asam naftena dan bensin yang dicampur minyak sawit napalm dan pasir dari arkansas river montgomery dan smith, 2010. Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing ching h yew, xiaowei weng revised to include current components considered for todays unconventional and multifracture grids, mechanics of hydraulic fracturing, second edition explains one of the most important features for fracture design the ability to predict the geometry and characteristics of the. Nsi fracturing engineers have worked for oil companies or service companies in reservoir engineering, fracture designimplantation before becoming an nsi fracturing consultant.
Hydraulic fracturing in shale with h2o, co2 and n2 onepetro. Some rock mechanics problems with application for hydraulic. Ito and hayashi, 2003 and rock mechanics testing of core to evaluate the tendency for selfpropping lutz et al. In this paper we propose a new method for simultaneously determining the in situ stress and elastic parameters of rock. A radial hydraulic fracture from a horizontal well is simulated to investigate the effects of the thermal nonequilibrium between the fracturing fluid and the host rock. The mechanical mechanism of the hydraulic fracturing is that the water wedging action changes the intensity of nominal stress near the tip of the crack.
Hydraulic fracturing hydraulic fracturing mechanics. Fracture toughness rock mass hydraulic fracture fire flooding rock fracture mechanics. He has more than 20 years of experience in rock mechanics, well completions, and hydraulic fracturing. Stimulation of gas or oil shales by hydraulic fracturing requires injecting water at a very high rate into kilometrelong boreholes, in order to induce sufficient fracture width to place the proppant. Application of rock mechanics in hydraulic fracturing theories. Classically, hydraulic fracturing has been conceptualized as creating a single, planar, opening mode tensile fracture. Nsi fracturing engineers will perform a full evaluation of a formation using a well log, well test data, cores, pressure transient data and all reservoir data and the. Revised to include current components considered for todays unconventional and multifracture grids, mechanics of hydraulic fracturing, second edition explains one of the most important features for fracture design the ability to predict the geometry and characteristics of the hydraulically induced fracture. Pdf thermal effects during hydraulic fracturing in low. Advanced hydraulic fracturing training course petroskills ahf. Hydraulic fracturing is widely used to determine in situ stress of rock engineering.1165 923 285 275 682 459 77 1195 1319 19 1430 1061 1359 1222 833 1229 1325 216 162 1212 581 1361 54 958 220 1367 876 187 417 796 1187