Sellar and parasellar tumors pdf download medical books. Oct, 2011 schubiger and halter reported that the invasion of the infundibular recess by a suprasellar mass is suggestive of metastasis. B, coronal t2weighted image shows the mass black arrows to have cystic and solid components. Pdf the sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area where a number of neoplastic. Nonadenomatous tumors of the pituitary and sella turcica benjamin y. Reactive pituitary abnormalities in patients with klinefelters and turners syndromes. In this article, we present the case of an 11yearold boy with cushings disease secondary to an adrenocorticotropic hormone acthsecreting suprasellar epa. A solitary fibrous tumor sft is a type of spindle cell tumor that was initially. Huang, md, mph, and mauricio castillo, md, facr abstract. In this paper the authors goal was to determine if sphenoid anatomy influences pituitary tumor growth. A, axial noncontrast ct image shows a partially calcified suprasellar mass and obstructive hydrocephalus. Beijing neurosurgical institute, capital medical university, beijing, china 2. The second patient, a 52yearold woman, presented with. Suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult with hemorrhage.
It is the most common brain tumor within the ages of. In this paper, we highlight two specific instances, namely diagnosis and tumor refractory to chemoradiation. Separately, granular cell tumors gcts of the sellarparasellar region are an exceedingly rare clinical entity with less than 100 reported cases in the literature. This case illustrates a welldefined, solidcystic, and vivid enhancing suprasellar tumor that spares the pituitary gland. Resection of suprasellar tumors by using a modified. At the university of florida, we have specialists to treat craniopharyngioma in both adult and pediatric patients. Unlimited viewing of the articlechapter pdf and any associated supplements and. Tihan et al, in 1999, described a series of neoplasms occurring in the pediatric population having a distinctive monomorphous pilomyxoid histologic pattern. In this age group the differential diagnosis to be considered is made between. The patients brain mri revealed a large tumor arising from the suprasellar cistern of the third ventricle.
Suggestive symptoms include rapid onset of progressive ophthalmoplegia with retroorbital or facial pain, visual impairment, andor di. Classification of parasellar tumours according to malignant potential and other. Sm represent approximately 5% to 10% of intracranial meningiomas. Suprasellar germinoma presenting with slipped capital. In a time of rapid advances in this field i would recommend it. Loudest pubic bone crack ive ever heard self cracker gets deeper adjustmentcarpal tunnelasmr duration.
C, sagittal postcontrast t1weighted image demonstrates the sellar, suprasellar, and prepontine extent of the tumor and areas of enhancement. Although these lesions were histologically similar to pilocytic astrocytomas, they had a higher rate of recurrence and dissemination than did the. Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slowgrowing tumors. Wikidoc resources for parasellar and suprasellar disorders. Suprasellar germinoma presenting with slipped capital femoral. Tumors of pituitary gland constitute 510%of the intracranial tumors. This report presents a rare presentation of a ganglioglioma in the sellarsuprasellar region. Jan 01, 2007 the dissection and the removal of the lesion in the suprasellar area follow the same paradigms of microsurgery and uses lowprofile instruments and specifically designed bipolar forceps. Sellar and suprasellar granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis. Sagittal t1weighted w imaging is the most useful plane and sequence to evaluate a suprasellar mass. Influence of tumor location on the presentation and evolution of craniopharyngiomas. Most of these tumors were located in the hypothalamicchiasmaticsuprasellar region.
A 35yearold man was diagnosed with a hemorrhagic suprasellar pa in 2006. Discussion there is a significant differential diagnosis that must be considered. Supplemented with pictures from rhotons dissections, the details are explained very well. Endonasal surgery for suprasellar germ cell tumors. Pituitary and parasellar tumors encompass a variety of neoplasms of the sellar region. It has an excellent prognosis after total resection. Empty sella syndrome is the condition of a shrunken or flattened pituitary gland since the sella turcica forms a bony caudal border for the pituitary gland, a pituitary tumor usually extends upward in the rostral direction into the suprasellar region. A preliminary study of the clinical application of optic.
Increased restingstate functional connectivity in suprasellar tumor patients with postoperative visual improvement. A case of suprasellar germ cell tumor is described in a 6year old airedale terrier bitch that presented behavioral changes and abrupt onset of blindness. Craniopharyngioma is a histologically benign, extraaxial, slowgrowing tumor that predominantly involves the sella and suprasellar space see the images below. In a tumor of a large or a giant size, the chiasm and the. Coexisting pituitary adenoma and suprasellar meningiomaa. Lance governale, pediatric patients about craniopharyngioma craniopharyngioma is a benign brain tumor most commonly occurring in the suprasellar area of the brain. To determine ocular manifestations of suprasellar tumors and to identify the preoperative factors that might influence final visual outcomes.
Sphenoid sinus anatomy and suprasellar extension of. It is the most frequent suprasellar mass in adults, it arises from the pituitary. Craniopharyngioma is a rare, usually suprasellar neoplasm, which may be cystic, that develops from nests of epithelium derived from rathkes pouch. On the basis of imaging results and clinical symptoms differential diagnosis between the various tumor entities should be feasible in many cases. The sphenoid sinus is known to have a variable anatomical configuration, and the authors hypothesize that certain anatomical factors may resist tumor expansion into the sphenoid sinus, thereby directing tumor growth into the suprasellar space.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 men1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and pituitary tumors. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma pxa, first described by kepes et al. A computer program that combines different mr images taken before surgery may be used to make a. The typical aspects of the various tumors on computed tomography ct and magnetic resonance imaging mri together with important clinical differences are illustrated. They rarely grow to a sufficient size to cause mass effect related symptoms and they may be found in most cases incidentally at autopsy.
Sellar and parasellar imaging neurosurgery oxford academic. The sella turcica forms a bony seat for the pituitary gland clinical significance. They arise from the anterior portion of the gland and are usually benign. We report a rare case of suprasellar germinoma presenting with scfe in an 11yearold female patient. Pdf a suprasellar cystic germ cell tumor initially. Tumor pathology in patients who underwent transnasal endoscopic surgery for sellar and suprasellar lesions. Amenorrheagalactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, and suprasellar pituitary enlargement as presenting features of primary hypothyroidism. The chapter on basic anatomy of the sellar, parasellar cavernous region, and the suprasellar region is discussed in detail.
Health, general granuloma diagnosis immunohistochemistry analysis magnetic resonance imaging usage. The diagnosis and management of parasellar tumours of the pituitary. Articles most recent articles on parasellar and suprasellar disorders. It also offers the shortest distance to the region of the suprasellar cistern along the axis of the sphenoid ridge. Ten patients with parasellar metastatic lesions presented with insidious painful or painless ophthalmoplegia. Leptomeningeal dissemination and hemorrhage are very rare to be associated with pa and lead to unfavorable prognosis. Intracranial germ cell tumors gcts frequently present with bifocal lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal areas. Pdf endoscopic surgery of sellar and suprasellar tumors. Seven years after the initial treatment the tumor had regrown, and she was introduced to our hospital. Sellar and parasellar metastatic lesions are relatively rare.
We report here the case of a suprasellar cystic germ cell tumor gct initially diagnosed as an arachnoid cyst. We are a major referral center in the tristate area and home to the pituitary care and research center suprasellar meningiomas tend to affect middleaged men and. Patients typically present with a history of slowly progressive uni or bilateral visual decline. Because of their rarity as of now they have been described only as case reports or included in small clinical series. They occur with greater frequency in females than males and most commonly arise in patients between 20 and 50 years of age. Any information contained in this pdf file is automatically generated from digital. While pituitary adenomas make up over 90% of all sellar masses, there are a number of less known tumors, both malignant and benign, which may arise within the sella turcica. Dec 21, 2017 sellar and suprasellar granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis. This neoplasm, which is classified as a grade ii tumor by the world health organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system, carries a relatively favorable outcome. Suprasellar meningiomas neurosurgery oxford academic. The suprasellar cistern is a cerebrospinal fluid filled space between the top of the pituitary and bottom of the hypothalamus. Subfrontal approach for resection of suprasellar mass lesion. Decompression of the optic apparatus via a right pterional craniotomy and total removal of the suprasellar tumor achieved using microsurgical technique.
The diagnosis and management of parasellar tumours of the. Scfe can be caused by various endocrinopathies that lead to bone weakening in both adult and pediatric patients. It shows the anterior and posterior pituitary gland within the sella, the infundibular stalk extending through the suprasellar cistern, the optic chiasm anterior to the infundibular stalk, the tuber cinereum and the mamillary bodies posterior to the infundibular stalk, lamina terminalis. Sfts rarely occur in the sella turcica, with only four cases of sellar sft. Suprasellar masses present with a variety of neurologic or endocrine dysfunctions depending on their site of origin and mass effect on adjacent structures. The lower part of the tumor then grows in the suprasellar space, and the upper part extends into the cavity of the third ventricle and comes into direct contact not only with the atrophied remnants of the floor of the third ventricle but also with the lateral ventricular walls. Article information, pdf download for pediatric suprasellar tumors. View the article pdf and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. The sella turcica forms a bony seat for the pituitary gland. A 10yearold boy experienced headache, dizziness, and diplopia, and was shown to. Necropsy revealed a mass lesion in the suprasellar region.
Pdf suprasellar germ cell tumor in a dog soraia souza. Due to this anatomical relationship, visual impairment is the most common objective manifestation of such tumors. Pdf a large cystic intrasellar and suprasellar tumor. Cleveland clinic foundation, institute of pathology, cleveland, oh 44195, usa. Suprasellar medical definition merriamwebster medical. Also, the strategy for tumor removal is tailored to each lesion, so that it will be different in craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, and so on. Sweiss, 3 stephanie zyck, 2 lauren dalvin, 2 and javed siddiqi 1 1 department of neurosurgery, arrowhead regional medical center, 400 n. The most challenging aspect of germ cell tumor management for the treating physician is knowing the proper indications for surgery. Endoscopic surgery of sellar and suprasellar tumors. Cureus granular cell pituitary tumor in a patient with. An mri without contrast with magnified pituitary images showed a large 2. The sella and parasellar region outline imaging techniques normal anatomy differential diagnosis.
Since the sella turcica forms a bony caudal border for the pituitary gland, a pituitary tumor usually extends upward in the rostral direction into. The enigma of bifocal germ cell tumors in the suprasellar. Pathology of sellar and supar sellar tumours authorstream presentation. Nonadenomatous tumors of the pituitary and sella turcica. Pituitary adenomas are the most common cause of a sellar mass extending to the. Diaphragm sella was intact and we did not attempt to excise the intrasellar lesion. We briefly discuss basic mri concepts used in the initial evaluation of a pediatric brain tumor and then discuss sophisticated mri techniques that give insight into the physiology and chemical makeup of these tumors to help the radiologist make a more. Pituitary region masses radiology reference article. In adults, these tumors tend to appear one decade earlier than low grade diffusely infiltrating.
Characterization of sellar and parasellar lesions is challenging due to the anatomical. Presentation and management ofparasellar and suprasellar metastatic mass lesions. Imaging studies confirmed a lesion in the suprasellar region and surgical intervention to remove the tumor yielded an unexpected diagnosis. We present two cases of a very rare tumor, intracranial lipoma, diagnosed by computed tomography ct and magnetic. Pdf the diagnosis and management of parasellar tumours of the. The authors retrospectively evaluated the characteristics on magnetic resonance mr images of 59 suprasellar lesions and compared them with computed tomography ct scans in. Craniopharyngiomas and suprasellar tumors clinical gate.
Pediatric suprasellar tumors are a separate entity as far as pathologies are concerned. Suprasellar adrenocorticotropic hormonesecreting ectopic. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an. Empty sella syndrome is the condition of a shrunken or flattened pituitary gland. The frontotemporal approach offers a more anterolateral trajectory to the suprasellar cistern, with early detection of the carotid artery and pituitary stalk behind or lateral to the tumor fig.
Neuroimaging characteristics and histopathology including immunohistochemistry are described. Jun 14, 2016 the frontotemporal approach offers a more anterolateral trajectory to the suprasellar cistern, with early detection of the carotid artery and pituitary stalk behind or lateral to the tumor fig. Operative outcomes and adjuvant treatment of purely third ventricle craniopharyngioma after a transcallosal approach. The incidence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 2% to 27% in the general population. Differential diagnosis of truly suprasellar spaceoccupying. Tumor seeding was significantly associated with bifocal lesions p 0. This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the clinical and mr imaging findings of suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors in adult patients, to obtain a pretreatment diagnosis. Suprasellar tumors such as craniopharyngioma, pinealoma, and germinoma, which are. Craniopharyngiomas are suprasellar tumours that are believed to arise from craniopharyngeal duct remnants.
Approximately 40% of men1 patients harbor a pituitary adenoma. Read more about symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, causes and prognosis. The authors retrospectively evaluated the characteristics on magnetic resonance mr images of 59 suprasellar lesions and compared them with computed tomography ct scans in 55 of the cases in whi. Conventional and advanced mri features of pediatric intracranial tumors. Unlike meningiomas and pituitary adenomas in adults, craniopharyngiomas, optic gliomas, and germinomas form the main lesions in the region. Granular cell tumors of the neurohypophysis are rare, solitary lesions, mostly presenting in the adult age. This book is extremely informative, superbly presented, and lavishly illustrated. Presentation and management of parasellar and suprasellar. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis scfe is a fracture that results from displacement of the proximal femoral epiphysis from the femoral neck. View enhanced pdf access article on wiley online library html view download pdf for offline viewing. Conventional and advanced mri features of pediatric. Pxa comprises 1% of all brain tumors and is commonly found in young adults and children, with a peak incidence between 10 and 30 years of age. Pathophysiology and individualized treatment of hypothalamic.
Sellar tumor with suprasellar extension brain tumor sellar tumor with suprasellar extension. This case study describes a young man with symptoms suggestive of the presence of a spaceoccupying lesion within the cranial cavity. We present a case of a 10yearold girl treated with therapeutic anticoagulation for previous cardiac valvular replacement, who presented with rapidly growing giant 4 cm suprasellar germinoma. Jianyou ying 1, chuzhong li 1, taoyang yuan 1, lu jin 2, rui wang 1, zhentao zuo 3,4,5, yazhuo zhang 1,2,6,7.
On admission, mr imaging showed a partially ossified solid tumor in the suprasellar cistern, which had compressed the optic chiasm upwards, and a. Suprasellar germ cell tumors have previously been reported in. The radiologic examinations were evaluated retrospectively to determine if diagnosis can be made based on specific imaging patterns. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arteriography all play roles depending upon the localization of the process. Germinomas have a propensity to invade the hypothalamus and. A suprasellar germ cell tumor in a 16monthold wagyu. Differential diagnosis of suprasellar tumors in children. Borja 1, nolan altman 2 and gaurav saigal 1 audio available share claim cmesam. Chapter 39 craniopharyngiomas and suprasellar tumors. A mass lesion was demonstrated by ct scan with precise outlining of the location and size of the lesion.
Breast and lung have been reported to be the most common sources in both sexes. Because of the rapid growth of metastatic lesions, a dumbbellshaped intra and suprasellar tumor with indentation at the diaphragm level is generally indicative for these cases 20, 37, 49. An extensive literature search revealed 64 previously reported cases. Annals of diagnostic pathology 2009 173 175 radiologicpathologic correlation suprasellar spindle cell lipoma krista l. This germ cell tumor occurs in children and young adults, most commonly in the pineal and suprasellar regions. Histopathology was consistent with a suprasellar germ cell tumor. Imaging of intrasellar, suprasellar, and parasellar tumors. The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct. Jung ty, jung s, jang wy, moon ks, kim iy, kang ss.
The neoplasm compressed the ventral surface of the cerebrum from the level of basal ganglia to. A mass lesion was demonstrated by ct scan with precise outliningof the location and size of the lesion. Tumors of the sellar and parasellar region springerlink. Successful treatment of suprasellar tumors associated with. When we decided on a strategy of subtotal tumor removal during the operation, we did so to avoid injuring the pituitary stalk in patients whose tumors straddled rather than displaced, and in some instances engulfed, the pituitary stalk. However, conventional transcranial approaches to the suprasellar region require significant brain retraction and offer limited visualization of contralateral tumor. Sellar tumor with suprasellar extension brain tumor. Solitary fibrous tumor located in the sella turcica. A, sagittal noncontrast t1weighted image shows a sellarsuprasellar mass with a. Sellar and suprasellar granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis.1127 710 1057 309 1172 672 1398 919 120 1494 446 1003 1397 704 63 816 28 1178 1178 1486 618 1141 669 40 914 165 24 830 437 188 1041 990 1477 652 177 992 1223 1491 1151 1120 873